Prevalence of depression in pregnancy and its association with fear of child birth: A cross sectional study
Keywords:pregnancy, depression, child birth
Background: Depression is a prevalent mental health concern among pregnant women, and its association with fear of childbirth has gained increasing attention in recent years. Fear of childbirth, also known as tokophobia, is a common concern among pregnant women and can significantly impact their mental health. Women with high levels of fear of childbirth may experience increased stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms throughout their pregnancy journey.
Objective: The primary objective of this research is to estimate the overall prevalence of depression among pregnant women and assess its association with fear of childbirth. Secondary objectives include identifying potential moderators that may influence this association, such as socio-demographic factors, cultural influences, and healthcare disparities.
Methodology: This cross- sectional study was conducted on pregnant women coming to Gynecology Department, CMH Lahore for their routine checkup. Depression and associated perception that is fear of child birth is established during pregnancy including all the three trimesters. Sample size was calculated n= 208 using the Cochran formula with a prevalence of 50%, margin of error 5%, confidence level of 95%, as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account. A Google form self -report online questionnaire was used to characterize the participants and Beck’s depression Inventory scale used for data collection.
Results: Among 208 participants, there was predominance of women with average age of 28.95. All were married and living with partners. Among the participants, 26% rarely experienced loss of interest in activities and 32.7% sometimes experienced loss of interest in activities. 38.9% never feel discouraged about the future and 32.2% sometimes feel discouraged. P value came out to be 0.475 with confidence interval of 0.682-2.25 which was not significant.
Conclusion: In conclusion, as study shows that depression and mental illness is prevalent in pregnant women, although pregnancy is supposed to be a period of proper physical and mental health. We as health care providers should make efforts for proper counselling of patients regarding mental health and timely refer to psychologist if needed, can help patients and allow them to have healthy prenatal and postnatal period as well.
Key words: Pregnancy, Depression, child birth