Naegleria fowleri: An emerging issue of significant concern in Pakistan


  • Asif Hanif Editor in Chief: PJBMR Author
  • Tahira Ashraf Managing Editor: PJBMR Author



There is thermophilic flagellate amoeba that is known as Naegleria fowleri and it is labelled as brain-eating amoeba. This is a causative agent for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a dangerous waterborne disease affecting humans and animals. There is a possibility that shifts in climatic circumstances as contributing factor in this unexpected increase, which has significant repercussions for the general populace. It can be found in environments all over the world, but it is increasingly being identified in manmade water systems such drinking water distribution systems (with fatal infections documented from the United States of America, Australia, and Pakistan). Pakistan is ranked the 2nd  most affected country, where most of cases are reported from the biggest city of Pakistan i.e. Karachi. An immediate epidemiologic examination of the relevant environmental issues is required in order to determine the causes of this abrupt increase in PAM cases.   Pakistan is a developing nation, and its health system delivery is nothing near sufficient. Furthermore, many people in Pakistan do not have access to medical services, and those that do exist are inaccessible. Lack of potable water, sanitation, and knowledge exacerbates water-borne illness outbreaks. Authorities must detect widespread health issues and take action to alleviate suffering. Furthermore, there is an immediate need to educate individuals on the significance of using boiling water for nasal cleaning, particularly after swimming.


Download data is not yet available.






How to Cite

Hanif A, Ashraf T. Naegleria fowleri: An emerging issue of significant concern in Pakistan. PJBMR [Internet]. 2023 Aug. 19 [cited 2024 Mar. 4];1(2). Available from: